ANIMATION by PRESTON BLAIR. LEARN. HOW TO DRAW. ANIMATED. CARTOONS. PUBLISHED BY WALTER T. FOSTER. Preview Download · Buy paper is the starting point to a world of exciting cartoon animation. Learn & Enjoy Cartoon Animation – Preston Blair en español. Preston Blair - Cartoon Animation - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.
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READ PDF Online Cartoon Animation By Preston Blair DOWNLOAD EBOOK PDF KINDLE. PDF Cartoon Animation pdf By — Preston Blair. Clip Studio Paint EX English Translation Download Full. DOWNLOAD LINKS: . DOWNLOAD: Cartoon Animation - Preston Blair. 4 comentários. In Cartoon Animation, acclaimed cartoon animator Preston Blair shares his vast practical Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App.
It can be an exciting experience to create and develop an original cartoon character. Constructing and developing a character is not merely a matter of drawing the figure, each character also has its own shape, personality, features, and mannerisms. The animator has to take these qualities into consideration to make the characters seem lifelike and believable. For example, there are various personality types such as "goofy," "cute," and "screwball". Think about the type of character you wish to design, then use the diagrams and guides shown in this chapter to begin your drawing.
The body and all the parts move in paths of action, these are the usual patterns. The action can move in either direction. As in life, cycles have countless variations, and you can exaggerate or subdue any position or move. Never move a character without meaning. Bring out a gesture, mannerism, or story mood in every cycle. Two of the cycles below are combined in a double-bounce-strut.
Notice the cocky gesture at high points. It is a series of closely related drawings, no time is lost in going to the opposite step gesture.
Funny walks can "make" a film. It is used to produce the considerable film footage of a television cartoon series. A change of pace results from the use of full animation in critical actions of the story and the use of limited animation in dialogue with bursts of full animation for important gestures.
Animation, backgrounds with overlay backgrounds, and camera fields and trucks are planned for use in many combinations.
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Thus, the production work gets more "mileage. Such animation can be used in the field center with a moving pan as the background. The same cels placed on moving pegs can move the character through a still background scene. The same cels can also walk into another background, stay centered as the background moves, and then move out when the background stops. On the other three cel levels in the animation scene, other cycle characters can move at a different speed, in any direction.
It is especially adaptable to the type of characters illustrated on page The dialogue system is often more elaborate, as seven heads up and down and seven heads in a sideways move, all around a centered head. Laughs and giggles are often animated by a laughing, evenly spaced, up-and-down series of such heads in a stagger-timing on the exposure sheet.
A dialogue head series can be fitted to a body cycle walking on a pan background. A bottom peg camera device moves the pegs up and down to fit the walking action. Heads can fit characters in a vehicle on a pan. This entire action bounces on the rough road using the same device attached to the bottom peg bar. Such mechanics are endless. After the cel is placed on camera, the cutout is placed over or under the cel according to a few dot guides on the cel.
For example, an elaborate line engraving of an antique auto is cut out and placed under a cel series that animates the wheel action, dust, smoke, and characters seated in the auto. Animation cutouts can be very cost effective in producing animated films. Body poses, with different head attitudes, can be used over and over in multiple combinations. For example, different arms can be used on the same body, as can mouths, eyes, and noses on a single cel head without having to redraw the entire body for each movement.
All parts of these "animation cutouts" can be stored for recall in another scene or film. Here are some examples of the many divisions possible. The same set of character cels can be used in many scones. Each head has a series of four to seven mouth drawings that work on the cel level above the head. Thus, the head nods in many timings for any amount of dialogue. Here is the order of setting up the parts of a dog that are joined at socket points.
Use perspective guidelines on the body when needed - as you do on the head. This is a colored cel made from the cleanup drawing on page The cleanup drawing was enlarged on a copy machine, and then a brush and ink were used to trace it onto the cel. The cleaned up animation drawing is transferred to a transparent cel celluloid. The drawing can also be photocopied onto the cel. Then the colors are painted on the back of the cel with opaque acrylic paint acrylics are used because they will adhere to the cot.
After the cot is colored, it is placed over the background and photographed with the camera. This process is explained in more detail on page Most cartoon cels are inked with a pen, but the brush can be used to give a heavier, more accented line the drawings on these two pages were done with a brush. If you are designing an original character, experiment with its coloration by using transparent watercolors on photocopies or enlargements of your cleanup drawings.
Color many drawings until you perfect the color scheme, and then make acrylic-colored cels using the watercolor paints as guides. You can make colored backgrounds for the cels using both watercolors and the opaque acrylics the way studios do. Background texture can be created with a wet sponge and opaque acrylic paint. On this page below is an example of a storyboard that is the basic plan of an animated cartoon film. It resembles a page in the newspaper comics.
Artists in a story department develop the story line of the film by attaching these story sketches onto a large blackboard-size board with pushpins. The storymen will replace drawings and re-edit the storyboard constantly as they visualize and originate additions and changes to add humor to the story. The inanimate object that has come to life the tree is another type of cartoon character to add to this book.
Here the trees engage in the full verbosity of a violent argument, and the storymen must visualize the continuity.
Then, the film director and staff take a hand in the development, followed by the animator who often puts in the vital finishing touches and changes.
It is a constant creative process-at least at the important studios-especially on features, The storyman has to know staging and drama, he has to figure out and anticipate what the audience is thinking and then surprise, amuse, or spellbind the viewer. Such is the simple recipe for a blockbuster epic. Story artists also visualize the art style of the film. Storyboards may incorporate an occasional picture done in full-color watercolor or pastel that establishes the color and the background treatment.
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A team of artists usually develops the storyboard after the idea is acted out by the storyman before an audience in a conference of evaluation. This helps the creativity process tremendously. For example, while looking at the storyboard below, a storyman might add picture panels between the first two that visualize an interesting or amusing way that the golden hatchet was obtained by our hero. Working with the film director, a layout artist draws each scene for the animator.
He makes pencil drawings of the background and the key animation positions. These layout drawings establish the relationship between the background and the animation art.
In the example here, the drawing of the witch in the distance is separate from the layout drawing of the village. The animator and film director meet to discuss the scene.
First they study the various elements of the scene: Then they usually review the art that leads into it. Finally, the director explains what he visualizes for the scene and how it fits into the rest of the story and film production. For example, a small village is undergoing an aerial attack from the wicked witch, it is evening. The blue cast of evening is the dominant color of the scene. Starting as a small dot in the distance, the witch enters the near sky on her broomstick, screaming and cackling hysterically.
Lightning flashes as the whole scene jumps to a warm daylight color for a few frames, this is followed by a clap of thunder, which intensifies as the witch winds her way forward, coming down the street from the upper left. Panicked villagers run through the streets, hiding in doorways - here and there people close their shutters.
Suddenly, with a fiendish scream, the witch rockets to the foreground for a moment, her head turned away as she navigates the turn and screams at the villagers. Then, twisting down the street toward the upper right, she turns left to fly around the chimney in the center of the scene. The fiendish hag disappears behind the roof at the top of the scene for a moment and then reappears in the sky on the opposite side.
Turning forward, she hurtles up the narrow street canyon, pursuing the stumbling and falling villagers. Next, preceded by a flash of light and a clap of thunder, the witch gyrates to the foreground to scream at the viewer, as pictured in the drawing at far right, Then turning back to the village, she streaks down the street to the right, twisting and turning around the chimneys, rooftops, and streets, finally rock sting into the far sky, becoming a mere moving speck above the distant trees.
Today, it is possible to animate these active villagers and the distant witch on a much larger scale. The scene is first divided into sections, these sections can be combined and reduced to the scale above on photocopied cels modern Disney feature animation demonstrates a computer-assisted process. To do this type of animation, you need four layers of cel animation - on either a single field or multiple fields long cels - which are on either top or bottom pegs, a pan background that can move right or left on top or bottom pegs, and either top or bottom floating pegs attached to moving flaps that overlay the background or cel.
This setup allows for adjustments for mastery and range, as well as the greatest variety of camera shots see page By redesigning the background of this witch scene into a basic background and two overlay backgrounds you can create a three-dimensional effect.
The three-dimensional effect is created by moving the second overlay quickly, the first overlay fairly slowly, and the basic background even more slowly.
The dramatics of the scene can be heightened by following the witch with truck movements from her entrance to the hurtling up the street to scream at the viewer. In a simpler version, the witch is on a single field cel and flies from the distance to the foreground and remains in the same relative position shown across the scene.
The no. The distant hills could be the background. The foreground and the foreground inn and tree could be two separate overlays. They could separate during a truck-down to give depth. Cels can be separated vertically to create a natural movement of objects and create a feeling of depth during a camera truck-down toward the cels.
The vertical movement up or down of the camera on the frame is called a "truck". A truck movement is indicated using the field center location of the chart see below and page The truck move is charted on the chartmap a portion of which is shown, actual size, below that can be registered below the camera on the compound, if necessary. To help you better understand trucks and fields, the trucks shown below are designed to appear on film absolutely even, with no sudden moves or hesitations.
A truck is indicated as per field center location on the chart on page , like a map north, south, east, and west. The truck is charted on a section of the chart shown actual size, below. This truck is down or up between a no. Still the path of a truck can curve or even stagger. The field can tip to any degree or it can turn around. Truck moves are usually evenly spaced on the charted path in red with a slight slow in and slow-out.
To help you grasp the meaning of trucks and fields, here is a truck that is figured to appear on film absolutely even. Each move reduces the field by the same percentage. The fields look like the framework of a house.
Even steps down the road are in the same configuration. Use diagonals, as shown, to locate such positions in perspective work. Now when you animate in these fields, you can see that the same spaced move in your animation art will be a different length and speed in each separate field. The same pan move is also slower in the large fields and faster in the small fields.
Under the realistic surface of every picture are abstract principles of composition that are the structure and foundation on which the picture is built, the decorative pattern of the picture, and the means of telling a story or expressing a dramatic mood.
Thus, composition has a triple function. Artists operate intuitively with composition. Many draw without the power of knowing the composition principles they use, they draw without recourse to inference or reasoning but with a kind of innate or instinctive knowledge of composition. This was the case with Michelangelo, whereas Leonardo da Vinci composed with knowledge. An understanding of composition principles is extremely useful to an animator when he or she moves and poses the actors in the stage set.
The animation is the center of interest in the total picture.
In all types of art there are abstract elements that support and point to this center. In the example here, the abstractions of the fox and the raccoon fit and take advantage of the circular rhythms red and the vertical-horizontal-diagonal composition blue.
So watch the perspective in the set as the actor moves with meaning and "play all of your cards". As the camera trucks down and around the no.
The bear and the raccoon seen below in a walk cycle animate through the scene, moving from right to left. The pan background top moves to the right under the bear and raccoon long cars. Above these cels an overlay background of the large tree moves right at twice the speed or spacing of the pan background. Above the tree overlay, a second overlay background moves right at three times the speed of the pan.
Thus there are three different background pieces. Each moves at a different speed, giving the scene an illusion of reality, with great depth and distance. For instance, close trees move faster than distant trees. Variations in pan overlay speeds are plotted using actual perspective moves. Backgrounds can be several fields in length or a cycle background is planned with three or more fields, such as the first and last fields, painted exactly alike.
Thus, the background can be jumped between these fields in a cycle. Cycles like this bear and raccoon that move through a scene are on long calls that allow a full, clear field not indicated on each side of the characters. If a drawing is used in one peg position, it is usually put on a single field cel. In planned animation for TV, many scenes are made from this artwork.
Other pans are shot at smaller fields. Still scenes are made from sections of the background with other overlays and other animation used. The bear and raccoon cycle walk through other backgrounds. Overlays are cutouts, or the paintings are made directly on the cel with vinyl-acrylic paint. This water-based paint adheres to acetate, it is used for all animation cel production and for the artwork.
As shown on this page below, the back of the animation cel is painted with this opaque paint. Originally, the drawings were traced with pen or brush on the front of the cel with acetate inks.
A state-of-the-art photocopy machine is used to transfer most animation art to cels using fumes instead of heat to fix the image on the cel. Two types of machines are used, and the animator should know what each offers, just as he should know what the animation film camera can do. The drawings are photographed on film by an animation camera, and then this film is used to mass-produce cels. Thus, the rotoscope is obsolete. Trucks and all operations of an animation camera can be done by this versatile camera.
A camera "truck" is the vertical movement of the camera and the compound adjustments needed. Compound moves alone are called "cameramoves. Fields are located by center of field like a map: This measures compound moves. These are called "pan moves" for a background and "peg moves" for cel animation artwork.
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These are punched with peg holes for registry. The pegs at the top of the page are widely used for TV shows, commercials, and other production. Most animators use an aluminum-cast drawing disc that fits and rotates in a circular hole cut in a drawing board or table. The disc shown above has an adjustable moving peg bar that can serve as either top or bottom pegs by rotating the disc. Other discs have only the set pegs or two moving peg bars. Cameras truck to an 18, 24, or as high as a 36 field.
This is for special or unusual artwork that is rarely animated it is usually still. Cameras have special equipment for fully animated cel production at an 18 field. Extra peg bars are built into the compound. Many compounds have double top and bottom peg bars to help with 12 field production. Many compounds rotate degrees a complete circle. Fields can tip to any angle, twirl around, or shift to a degree vertical that would allow for an up-and-down pan scene.
Tilted fields are indicated in degrees, just as surveyors indicate angles on a map. This versatile camera can do many things. The camera operator shoots the scene based on the exposure sheet form and method shown at the left.
The animator draws a heavy line at the start and stop of all camera and peg bar moves. A truck is indicated with a vertical arrow, a camera dissolve-out is a V, and a dissolve-in is an inverted V, as shown.
These two V forms are combined in an X form for a fade-in and fade-out dissolve, and they overlap in an XX shape for a cross-dissolve.
Compound peg bar cel or pan moves are given in decimals, however, pan moves are also given with a chart of moves above or below pegs on the edge of the background. When a held cel is removed, resulting in no cel position in column, a blank cel is placed. There are four cel levels.
Sheets are usually for 80 frames or 5 feet see page A scene is easier to "shoot" if the pan is on the top pegs and the cels are on the bottom pegs. Animation drawn on the "natural" top pegs can easily be put on bottom peg cels. The camera runs both backward and forward, and it can shoot a scene in either direction. Thus, a scene exposed beginning at the end and moving toward the start enables a piece of artwork or an animated cycle to be "scratched off" or cut off according to planned spacing.
When projected forward, the action is growth. A "matte" shot uses a black matte over a scene being photographed, thus the area of the matte is unexposed. In another run a character is exposed in this exact area. The simplest form of animation is the "flip" book. To make a simple flip book, draw a dot, a circle, a skeleton, etc. Then draw the same figure, slightly progressed, on the next page.
Do this for fifteen or twenty pages, then flip the edges. An illusion of movement is created. Good animators retain the same spirit of fun and simplicity of the flip book in their work.
In the film studios, the basic flip book idea is enlarged on. This work is then traced in ink on celluloid transparent sheets cels. Next, opaque colors are painted on. These inked and painted cels are then photographed in sequence on a painted background. This motion picture cartoon film is then projected onto a screen.
An animation board will be a great help in your study of animation. Buy some unruled, 10" x 12" loose-leaf notebook paper that is punched with two big holes. Construct pegs of wood or metal on your board as illustrated so the paper fits snugly over the pegs.
The glass should be the same size as the paper. When you turn on the light under the board, you will be able to see through several sheets of paper and note how your series of drawings varies in position. Visualize and plan your action, then start with a key drawing or "extreme. Follow this procedure until all the extremes of your action have been roughed in, then make the in-between drawings to tie the action together. If the background moves, the scene has a "pan" action and is called a "pan scene".
During a pan action everything that touches the ground moves with and at the same speed as the pan - for example, feet that touch the ground in a walk or a run. Work "rough" when laying out your animation. Feel out the basic construction of all the drawings in a scene, add the details later. The drawings on page are roughs. It is always a good idea to anticipate an action. When animating a character from one place to another, always go in the opposite direction first, just as a baseball player draws back and cocks his arm before he throws.
To help accent a pose on a character, go slightly past the pose when animating into the pose. For example, in a quick point make the finger go out fast and then, just for an instant, pass the position it finally stops at. Create overlapping action whenever you can. Always get a good follow-through action on loose, moving things such as coattails hair, long ears, ect.
Remember "squash and stretch. This type of distortion will give "sock" to your work. The recoil is a type of squash drawing, it is essential for a feeling of weight in your characters. Study the bouncing ball action on page , also see page Appreciate the value of a good silhouette in your key drawings. A solid silhouette of a drawing should still register the meaning and attitude of the pose see page Be alert to use exaggerated foreshortening in animation - it is very effective.
For example, if a character is swinging a bat around horizontally, when line end of the bat comes out and toward line camera, force the perspective on the bat, making the end very big. Make "pose" drawings. First visualize the scene, plan it with "poses", and, finally, animate. Make a few drawings of how you think the character should look at the most important points in the scene. These should be carefully thought out in regard to dramatic presentation, interpretation of mood, character, action, and humor.
With these drawings as a guide, start with your first pose and animate your in-between drawings toward the next pose. When you reach the second pose, do not use it as an extreme in your action if it does not fit into the logical progression, instead, make another one that ties in with your animation. Then proceed toward the next pose, and so forth. When possible, make a "path of action" and a "spacing chart" of the action you are animating.
For example, if a character is running away from the foreground, off into the distance, and over a hill, make two lines charting the top and bottom of the character in its flight, then mark off the estimated position of each drawing on this track.
They will be spaced widely in the foreground and closely in the distance. The procedure of mapping your action will increase accuracy and save time. Remember the timing points, and vary the speeds of action in a scene. A change of pace is usually desirable in animation. Learn the value of a hold: Study the art of going into and out of holds, cushioning into holds, when to freeze a hold deadstill, and when to keep up subtle animation during a hold to give it a "breath of life.
Use these pointers to learn how to animate characters that live, have feelings, and show emotion - characters who act convincingly and sway the viewer with suspense, enchantment, and humor. The art of animation has a great potential and future for an animator like you. There are several ways to make your own cartoon film without too much money. You can also make a film of your animation drawings without expensive sound tracks. You will need a 16mm or 8mm motion picture camera that is able to shoot one frame at a time and a wooden frame to support the camera as it points down at the animation artwork.
The camera will be mounted to the frame in a fixed position, allowing only one field size.
The frame is attached to a baseboard, and the animation drawings are placed on a set of pegs attached to the baseboard. If necessary, make film tests to be sure the field size and focus are correct. Attach the muzzle to the sphere. The muzzle is volumetric and wraps around the surface of the sphere.
When you have constructed the muzzle properly, you can begin to wrap the eyes around the form. Use the guide lines as an aid to turn the eyes around the shape. The eyebrows do as well. Even the small bits of fur are anchored to the main shape of the ear. Can you guess what the basic shape of the ears looks like without the details? Nothing is floating in space.
It all wraps around the form. You design the basic rough pass of the movement using just the primary shapes. Accuracy is also important in animation. If your drawings fluctuate from drawing to drawing, your animation will shimmer and shake. In order to get your drawings to flow from one to the next, you have to have complete control.
Draw it many times. Strive to do better each time. With each attempt the process will be ingrained deeper and deeper into your mind. Get to work! Email all this to the course instructor JoJo Baptista at….
Preston Blair was one of the finest draftsmen to have ever worked in the field of animation. His book, titled simply "Animation" crystalized the basic principles of cartoon animation, and profoundly influenced a whole generation of young animators. He passed away in When Blair put the book together in , he used the characters he had animated at Disney and MGM to illustrate the various basic principles of animation. Apparently, the rights to use some of the characters were revoked after the book was already in the stores.
Publication was halted for a time, and he was forced to redraw most of the MGM characters, replacing them with generic characters of his own design. The revised edition went on to become a classic, and the first edition was forgotten.
You can order the revised edition through this Amazon link , or you should be able to find it at your local art store. Below is a link to a PDF of the rare first edition we will be using for our examples in this course.
This PDF is set up so you can take it to your local copy shop and have them print it out on 11 x 17 paper. You should have a paper copy of the book to work with. Honestly, it was all I needed to get started. The book is pure gold.
This of course is the folly of youth. Keep up the good work. Stephen Worth Director Animation Resources. This posting is part of an online series of articles dealing with Instruction. This entry was posted on Monday, October 22nd, at 3: Animation Resources is a c 3 California non-profit corporation.
We are providing self-study resources and training material to animation professionals, cartoonists, designers, Illustrators, students and researchers. Animation Resource's Director, Stephen Worth can be reached at ASIFA-Hollywood for sponsoring my efforts to get this project off the ground during its first few years.
Without his unwavering support and valuable guidance this project would not exist. The material on this website is protected by copyright. It is not to be copied or distributed without the prior written authorization of Animation Resources Corporation.
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