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Previously, we conducted an intensive survey in the Mekong Delta and in western Malaysia and demonstrated a strong correlation between fecal indicator bacteria and coprostanol concentrations in tropical regions for the first time However, none of the previous studies, to our knowledge, have directly compared this relationship in different climatological settings.

In this study, we present the results of surveys conducted during the wet and dry seasons in the Mekong Delta and during the summer, the aftermath of a typhoon, and winter in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The objectives are i to provide fecal pollution monitoring data based on three bacterial indicators, namely total coliform TC , Escherichia coli , and fecal streptococcus FS , and a chemical indicator, coprostanol; and ii to assess the reliability of using indicator bacteria to assess sewage contamination in tropical regions by directly comparing variations in their relationships with coprostanol concentrations in different climates.

The climate in the Mekong Delta Fig. The average monthly temperatures have little seasonal variation, ranging from The total average annual precipitation is 1, mm, with the maximum monthly precipitation in October mm and the minimum in February 2 mm.

On the other hand, Tokyo Fig. The average monthly temperatures are highest during summer August, The total average annual precipitation is 1, mm, with the maximum monthly precipitation in June mm and the minimum in January 45 mm. Solid circles indicate sampling sites and double circles indicate STPs. The Mekong River, an international river in Southeast Asia, has a total length of 4, km, and the Mekong Delta lies in southern Vietnam.

The catchment area 65, km 2 constitutes Almost no sewage treatment plants STPs had been established in the Mekong Delta at the time of this survey. In Tokyo, three rivers with different characteristics were surveyed. The Sumidagawa River, with a total length of The Tamagawa River, with a total length of km, has a population of approximately 3. The Minamiasakawa River, with a total length of 8 km, receives effluents from septic tanks, and its headwaters are considered to be control sites because they have no known source of human impact.

Water samples were collected from 44 sites 23 river, 12 canal, and 9 groundwater and 29 sites 17 river, 9 canal, and 3 groundwater during the wet season October and dry season March , respectively, in the Mekong Delta and from 24 sites during the summer July , the aftermath of a typhoon September , and the winter December in Tokyo.

During the typhoon aftermath survey in Tokyo, the rivers were heavily swollen due to the passage of a typhoon with a total rainfall of mm. In addition, for examination of removal efficiencies, grab samples of raw sewage influents and secondary effluents were taken from five STPs located in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

All samples for bacteriological analysis were collected in sterile glass bottles, immediately placed on ice in dark cooling boxes, and processed within 8 h of collection. All samples for sterol analysis were collected in a stainless steel bucket and stored in solvent-rinsed 3-liter amber glass bottles.

The samples 0. The dry weight of particles on the filters was measured for all samples. The membrane filter technique 2 was used for the enumeration of indicator bacteria. The water samples were diluted, and each dilution was filtered through a sterile 0. Louis, Mo. All salmon to red colored colonies were counted as TC except for E.

All light and dark red colored colonies were counted as FS. Sterol standards were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, Co. Sterol names correspond to the notation used in the Merck Index Cholesterol-2,2,3,4,4,6- d 6 purchased from Sigma-Aldrich was used as a recovery surrogate, and perylene- d 12 purchased from Supelco was used as a gas chromatography injection internal standard.

The detailed procedure for sterol analysis has been previously reported Briefly, the samples were consecutively ultrasonically extracted with three solvents, namely methanol, dichloromethane-methanol 1: The sterol fraction eluted with dichloromethane and acetone-dichloromethane 3: The analysis was performed on an HP-5ms, 30 m by 0.

Chromatographic and operational conditions of the mass spectrometer have been previously described The concentrations of indicator bacteria and sterols were logarithmically transformed, and the samples in which microorganisms or sterols occurred below the limit of detection were recorded as zero for statistical analysis.

Analyses were performed using the statistical software package StatView v. The coefficients of determination R 2 were calculated to express the percentage variation that can be explained based on the regression equation indicating coprostanol concentrations corresponding to bacterial standards. The regressions presented use the bacterial number as the independent variable and the sterol concentration as the dependent variable, and F significance P values were determined.

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The geometric mean concentrations in milligrams per liter of suspended solids SS in the Mekong Delta during the wet and dry seasons were Higher SS concentrations during the wet season in the river waters were probably due to inputs of soil and other terrestrial particles carried by runoff, riverside soils eroded by strong and frequent rains, and resuspended bottom sediments. The geometric mean concentration of SS in Tokyo during the aftermath of a typhoon was close to the value observed in the Mekong Delta, at The respective geometric mean concentrations in milligrams per liter of SS in the summer and winter surveys were 6.

All STPs used activated sludge treatment followed by physical treatment settlement for their treatment process.

Densities of TC, E. One-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant difference in TC, E.

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The highest number of E. In the Mekong Delta, E. Meanwhile, in Tokyo, E. Densities of TC a , E. FS was also detected at the same sites maximum, 4. TC, E. Coprostanol concentrations at these sites were below the detection limit 0. Therefore, E. The coprostanol concentrations in the particulate phase of water samples are illustrated in Fig. The highest concentrations of coprostanol were observed during the dry season 0. The highest coprostanol concentration observed during the dry season in the Mekong Delta was higher than concentrations reported in Japan in the s Similarly, the highest total sterol concentrations summed concentrations of 10 analyzed sterols were observed during the dry season 0.

Extremely high concentrations of total sterols were observed during the dry season in the Mekong Delta The maximum concentrations of total sterols were approximately 2 to 5 times higher in the Mekong Delta than in Tokyo. The coefficients of determination R 2 were calculated for log-transformed TC, E. The strongest correlation was demonstrated for E.

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Relationship between concentrations of E. Each open circle represents a sampling event. Log-transformed E. Coprostanol concentrations corresponding to an E.

Relationship between concentrations of FS and coprostanol in water collected during the dry season a and wet season b in the Mekong Delta. Log-transformed FS and coprostanol concentrations are linearly regressed solid lines , and coefficients of determination R 2 are indicated. Solid circles, open circles, and crosses indicate the canal water, river water, and groundwater samples, respectively.

From 23/06/2016 to 11/09/2016

The rapid population growth and urbanization in tropical Asia have led to serious water pollution problems in the region. Intensive monitoring, especially of fecal pollution, is important for understanding the extent of this problem. This indicates a pressing need for improved sanitation to halt the potential spread of waterborne diseases in this region.

Despite the high coverage of sewage treatment in Tokyo, E. Since the geometric mean density of E. The higher E. The results suggest that urban rivers receiving large amounts of effluent from STPs also require frequent monitoring to ensure that favorable sanitary water quality is maintained. This study has emphasized the necessity of reappraising the use of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical regions to account for distinctive seasonal variations in bacterial counts in different climatological settings.

Strong correlations existed between E. Similar studies conducted in the Derwent Estuary 24 and in Sydney 27 did demonstrate a strong correlation between fecal coliform and coprostanol concentrations. As shown in Fig. However, the calculated coprostanol concentrations which corresponded to E. The observed differences in the corresponding coprostanol concentrations can probably be ascribed to variations in water temperature and soil particle concentration.

It is likely that lower water temperatures during the winter in Tokyo inhibited in situ growth of E. Similar observations have been reported for other organic compounds, such as linear alkylbenzenes LABs , whose concentrations were higher in winter due to decreased water flow and lower rates of biodegradation due to lower water temperatures On the other hand, in the Mekong Delta and in Tokyo during the summer and after a typhoon, the densities of E.

Kistemann et al. Other studies have documented in detail that the sources of coliforms and enterococci detected after heavy rain, such as from a typhoon, can probably be attributed to soils along the river bank 9 , 16 , I live in a large dorm in Odaiba, Tokyo, with many other international students who are studying at Japanese universities.

Since some of the other residents are from countries with which I'm not very familiar, such as those in Central Asia, it's interesting to get to meet and know them! The building also has a common kitchen and lounges, making it easy to get together with others.

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When I have free time, I enjoy exploring Tokyo. I like to experience the unsanitized version of the city, so I often get off at unfamiliar train stations just to see what those places are like.

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It's also nice to visit non-chain stores and restaurants in the shitamachi areas of the city and talk to the people who work there. One time when I went into a store, the old man running it offered to teach me how to make wagashi traditional Japanese sweets. It was like a scene straight out of Japan Hour! Sometimes instead of taking the train, I'll cycle from the Hongo Campus all the way back to Odaiba. I love watching the scenery gradually change from the traditional historic buildings in Hongo, to the modern, towering skyscrapers in Otemachi, and then finally to Tokyo Bay and the unique architecture in Odaiba.

I also like cooking, though I don't think I'm very good at it! It's fun to make Japanese dishes like nimono and yakizakana. I'm used to being in the language majority. Being in Japan, however, I'm now in the language minority. This has been an eye-opening experience that has given me deep respect and empathy for non native-speaking residents in any given country.

Living in Japan has also given me a heightened sense of my surroundings and made me more "plugged-in" to my environment. When I tell people in Japan that I'm from Singapore, they generally either say " sugoi! I hope my Japanese friends now have a better understanding of the tiny city-state from which I hail. I plan on graduating this September, after which I'll go back to Singapore to work in the public sector.

I'm really looking forward to working, since I've been a student for so long! My first piece of advice to those thinking of studying in Japan is to learn Japanese. Learning the local language where one lives is not only tremendously useful, but also shows respect and helps to better understand the culture.

Also, it's beneficial to be open and willing to talk to people, not just those within the university but outside of it as well. Finally, with regards to studying or conducting research, I think you should know why you're coming here and have a clear idea of what you want to accomplish.

The tropical city-state of Singapore may not seem to be a likely place to find quilts and blankets, but Joyce tells us a quilt fad hit the country some decades ago. Traveling Mercies. The Lost Gutenberg. Margaret Leslie Davis. Air Traffic. Gregory Pardlo. Ron Guidry and Andrew Beaton.

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