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downloads Views 1MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD EPUB Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged: A Philosophical and Literary Companion. Read more. Atlas Shrugged is a novel by Ayn Rand. Rand's fourth and last novel, it was also her longest, and the one she considered to be her magnum opus in the. Check Library Genesis All formats are available: lit, mobi, epub Happy Reading.

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The Driver " to be "unsupported", [16] and Stephan Kinsella doubts that Rand was in any way influenced by Garrett. But in plot, character, tone, and theme they are very different. To persuade Rand to publish her novel with Random House , publisher Bennett Cerf proposed a "philosophic contest" in which Rand would submit her work to various publishers to judge their response to its ideas, so she could evaluate who might best promote her work.

It marked a turning point in her life, ending her career as a novelist and beginning her tenure as a popular philosopher. Characters also refer to nationalization of businesses in these "People's States", as well as in America.

The " mixed economy " of the book's present is often contrasted with the "pure" capitalism of 19th century America, recalled as a lost Golden Age.

The novel is divided into three parts consisting of ten chapters each. Robert James Bidinotto noted "the titles of the parts and chapters suggest multiple layers of meaning. The three parts, for example, are named in honor of Aristotle 's laws of logic Part One is titled 'Non-Contradiction' Part Two, titled 'Either-Or' As the novel opens, protagonist Dagny Taggart , the Operating Vice President of Taggart Transcontinental, a railroad company established by her grandfather, attempts to keep the company alive against collectivism and statism.

Her brother, James Taggart , the railroad's President, is peripherally aware of the company's troubles, but seems to make irrational decisions, such as preferring to buy steel from Orren Boyle's Associated Steel, rather than Hank Rearden 's Rearden Steel, despite the former continually delaying delivery of vital rail.

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In this as in other decisions, Dagny simply continues her own policy; but is herself disappointed to discover that Francisco d'Anconia , her childhood friend and first love, appears to be destroying his family's international copper company without cause. Hank Rearden , a self-made steel magnate, has developed an alloy called Rearden Metal, now the most reliable metal in the world; but keeps its composition secret, sparking jealousy among competitors.

As a result, pressure is put on Dagny to use conventional steel ; but she refuses. Hank's career is hindered by his feelings of obligation to his wife, mother, and younger brother.

Dagny also becomes acquainted with Wesley Mouch , a Washington lobbyist initially working for Rearden, whom he betrays; and later notices the nation's most capable business leaders abruptly disappearing, leaving their industries to failure. The most recent of these is Ellis Wyatt, the sole founder and supervisor of Wyatt Oil, who leaves his most successful oil well spewing petroleum and fire into the air later named "Wyatt's Torch". Each of these men remains absent despite a thorough search by politicians.

While economic conditions worsen and government agencies enforce their control on successful businesses, the citizens are often heard repeating "Who is John Galt? It sarcastically means, "Don't ask important questions, because we don't have answers", or more broadly, "What's the point? Having demonstrated the reliability of Rearden Metal in a railroad line named after 'John Galt', Hank Rearden and Dagny Taggart become paramours; and later discover, amongst the ruins of an abandoned factory, an incomplete motor that transforms atmospheric Reluctant to forsake her railroad, Dagny leaves Galt's Gulch; but Galt follows Dagny to New York City , where he hacks into a national radio broadcast to deliver a long speech 70 pages in the first edition , to explain the novel's theme and Rand's Objectivism.

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The novel closes as Galt announces that they will later re-organize the world. The story of Atlas Shrugged dramatically expresses Rand's ethical egoism , her advocacy of " rational selfishness ", whereby all of the principal virtues and vices are applications of the role of reason as man's basic tool of survival or a failure to apply it: Robert James Bidinotto wrote, "Rand rejected the literary convention that depth and plausibility demand characters who are naturalistic replicas of the kinds of people we meet in everyday life, uttering everyday dialogue and pursuing everyday values.

But she also rejected the notion that characters should be symbolic rather than realistic.

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My characters are persons in whom certain human attributes are focused more sharply and consistently than in average human beings". In addition to the plot's more obvious statements about the significance of industrialists to society, and the sharp contrast to Marxism and the labor theory of value , this explicit conflict is used by Rand to draw wider philosophical conclusions, both implicit in the plot and via the characters' own statements.

Atlas Shrugged caricatures fascism , socialism , communism , and any state intervention in society, as allowing poor people to "leech" the hard-earned wealth of the rich; and Rand contends that the outcome of any individual's life is purely a function of its ability, and that any individual could overcome adverse circumstances, given ability and intelligence. The concept "sanction of the victim" is defined by Leonard Peikoff as "the willingness of the good to suffer at the hands of the evil , to accept the role of sacrificial victim for the ' sin ' of creating values".

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If it turned out to be me, I have no right to complain". John Galt further explains the principle: In Rand's view, virtue is subordinated to rational self-interest, defined as an exacting discipline of defining and pursuing one's best purposes, while refusing any deference of oneself to others or of others to oneself.

Rand's view of the ideal government is expressed by John Galt: In the world of Atlas Shrugged, society stagnates when independent productive agencies are socially demonized for their accomplishments. The action in Atlas Shrugged takes place at a time when society has reached the stage of dictatorship. When and if this happens, that will be the time to go on strike, but not until then". Rand also depicts public choice theory , such that the language of altruism is used to pass legislation nominally in the public interest e.

That sentence is the leper's bell of an approaching looter. Rand's heroes continually oppose "parasites", "looters", and "moochers" who demand the benefits of the heroes' labor.

The looters are proponents of high taxation, big labor, government ownership, government spending, government planning, regulation, and redistribution". Some officials execute government policy, such as those who confiscate one state's seed grain to feed the starving citizens of another; others exploit those policies, such as the railroad regulator who illegally sells the railroad's supplies for his own profit.

Both use force to take property from the people who "produced" or "earned" it. The character Francisco d'Anconia , indicates the role of "looters" in relation to money itself:.

Have you ever asked what is the root of money? Money is a tool of exchange, which can't exist unless there are goods produced and men able to produce them. Money is the material shape of the principle that men who wish to deal with one another must deal by trade and give value for value.

Atlas Shrugged

Money is not the tool of the moochers, who claim your product by tears, or the looters who take it from you by force. Money is made possible only by the men who produce. Is this what you consider evil? Not an ocean of tears nor all the guns in the world can transform those pieces of paper in your wallet into bread you need to survive tomorrow. Whenever destroyers appear among men, they start by destroying money, for money is men's protection and the base of a moral existence.

Destroyers seize gold and leave its owners a counterfeit pile of paper. This kills all objective standards and delivers men into the arbitrary power of an arbitrary setter of values Paper is a mortgage on wealth that does not exist, backed by a gun aimed at those who are expected to produce it. Paper is a check drawn by legal looters upon an account which is not theirs: Watch for the day when it bounces, marked: Rand illustrates what a relationship between two self-actualized, equal human beings can be Rand denies the existence of a split between the physical and the mental, the desires of the flesh and the longings of the spirit.

Technological progress and intellectual breakthroughs in scientific theory appear in Atlas Shrugged , leading some observers to classify Atlas in the genre of science fiction. Writer Jeff Riggenbach notes: Riggenbach adds, "Rand's overall message with regard to science seems clear: But science can fulfill this role only in a society in which human beings are left free to conduct their business as they see fit".

It peaked at 3 on December 8, , and was on the list for 22 consecutive weeks. Rand is said to have cried every day as the reviews came out. Atlas Shrugged was generally disliked by critics, despite being a popular success. The book was dismissed by some as an "homage to greed", while author Gore Vidal described its philosophy as "nearly perfect in its immorality". Is it a nightmare?

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Is it Superman — in the comic strip or the Nietzschean version? The negative reviews produced responses from some of Rand's admirers, including a letter by Alan Greenspan to The New York Times Book Review , in which he responded to Hicks' claim that "the book was written out of hate" by saying, " Atlas Shrugged is a celebration of life and happiness. Justice is unrelenting.

Creative individuals and undeviating purpose and rationality achieve joy and fulfillment. Parasites who persistently avoid either purpose or reason perish as they should. Chambers is an ex-Communist. Chambers may have changed a few of his political views; he has not changed the method of intellectual analysis and evaluation of the Party to which he belonged.

Positive reviews appeared in a number of publications. Former Rand business partner and lover Nathaniel Branden , to whom the book was originally dedicated, has expressed differing views of Atlas Shrugged. He was initially quite favorable to it, praising it in the book he and Barbara Branden wrote in called Who Is Ayn Rand? Atlas Shrugged is the greatest novel that has ever been written, in my judgment, so let's let it go at that.

But in , two years after Rand's death, he argued that Atlas Shrugged "encourages emotional repression and self-disowning" and that her works contained contradictory messages. Branden claimed that the characters rarely talk "on a simple, human level without launching into philosophical sermons". He criticized the potential psychological impact of the novel, stating that John Galt's recommendation to respond to wrongdoing with "contempt and moral condemnation" clashes with the view of psychologists who say this only causes the wrongdoing to repeat itself.

Over the years, Atlas Shrugged has attracted an energetic and committed fan base. Scott Peck 's The Road Less Traveled as the book that made the most difference in the lives of 5, Book-of-the-Month club members surveyed, with a "large gap existing between the 1 book and the rest of the list".

In , the Atlas Shrugged. Although legislation to that effect was introduced, the Senator had no plans to push the plan for adoption. Rand's impact on contemporary libertarian thought has been considerable; the title of the libertarian magazine, Reason: Free Minds, Free Markets , is taken directly from John Galt, the hero of Atlas Shrugged , who argues that "a free mind and a free market are corollaries". The Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises admired the unapologetic elitism he saw in Rand's work.

In a private letter to Rand written a few months after the novel's publication, he declared, " Atlas Shrugged is not merely a novel. It is also or may I say: You have the courage to tell the masses what no politician told them: Nobel Prize -winning economist and commentator Paul Krugman alluded to a quip [59] [60] by John Rogers in his blog: The Lord of the Rings and Atlas Shrugged.

One is a childish fantasy that often engenders a lifelong obsession with its unbelievable heroes, leading to an emotionally stunted, socially crippled adulthood, unable to deal with the real world.

The other, of course, involves orcs. In the late s, the book gained more media attention and conservative commentators suggested the book as a warning against a socialistic reaction to the finance crisis. Conservative commentators Neal Boortz , [64] Glenn Beck , and Rush Limbaugh [65] have offered high praise of the book on their respective radio and television programs.

The Economist reported that the fifty-two-year-old novel ranked 33 among Amazon.

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With an attached sales chart, The Economist reported that sales "spikes" of the book seemed to coincide with the release of economic data. Subsequently, on April 2, , Atlas Shrugged ranked 1 in the "Fiction and Literature" category at Amazon and 15 in overall sales.

At the time of publication, the novel was on The New York Times best-seller list and was selling at roughly a third the volume of A film adaptation of Atlas Shrugged was in " development hell " for nearly 40 years.

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Ruddy approached Rand to produce a cinematic adaptation. Rand agreed that Ruddy could focus on the love story. Michael Jaffe hired screenwriter Stirling Silliphant to adapt the novel and he obtained approval from Rand on the final script. Rand, a former Hollywood screenwriter herself, began writing her own screenplay, but died in with only one-third of it finished. She left her estate, including the film rights to Atlas , to her student Leonard Peikoff , who sold an option to Michael Jaffe and Ed Snider.

Peikoff would not approve the script they wrote, and the deal fell through. Hart [79] and re-written by Randall Wallace , [80] but was never produced. Stephen Polk was set to direct. Filming was completed on July 20, , [83] and the movie was released on April 15, Part II was fully funded and that principal photography was tentatively scheduled to commence in early April The third part in the series, Atlas Shrugged: Part III , was released on September 12, My Dashboard Get Published.

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This article is about the novel. For the film adaptations, see Atlas Shrugged: Part I , Atlas Shrugged: Part II , or Atlas Shrugged: Part III.

Atlas Shrugged First edition. An Unlikely Alliance. An Oral History of Ayn Rand. United Kingdom: Harriman, David, ed. The New Ayn Rand Companion. Greenwood Press. The Mind of the Market. Times Books. Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! Publication date Language English. Atlas Shrugged is a novel by Ayn Rand.

Rand's fourth and last novel, it was also her longest, and the one she considered to be her magnum opus in the realm of fiction writing.

Atlas Shrugged includes elements of science fiction, mystery, and romance, and it contains Rand's most extensive statement of Objectivism in any of her works of fiction. The book depicts a dystopian United States, wherein many of society's most prominent and successful industrialists abandon their fortunes and even the nation, in response to aggressive new regulations, whereupon most vital industries collapse.

The title is a reference to Atlas, a Titan described in the novel as "the giant who holds the world on his shoulders". The significance of this reference appears in a conversation between the characters Francisco d'Anconia and Hank Rearden, in which d'Anconia asks Rearden what advice he would give Atlas upon seeing that "the greater [the titan's] effort, the heavier the world bore down on his shoulders".

With Rearden unable to answer, d'Anconia gives his own response: Identifier-ark ark: